Database system

What is PostgreSQL? | Open source database system

PostgreSQL is an open source object relational database system that allows you to securely store and scale complex data workloads. In this article, we discuss PostgreSQL, its uses and benefits.

What is PostgreSQL?

PostgreSQL is an advanced open source relational database management (RDBMS) system developed by PostgreSQL Global Development Group. It was started as part of the POSTGRES project in 1986 at the University of California at Berkeley. It was originally released on July 8, 1996.

PostgreSQL is an enterprise-class relational database that allows both relational and non-relational queries. It supports procedural languages, such as PL / pgSQL, PL / Python, PL / Tcl, and PL / Perl, as well as other non-standard procedural languages, such as Java, .Net, Go, Ruby, C, C ++ , ODBC, and others.

This RDBMS can also store structured and unstructured data in a single product. It supports most data types, such as Numeric, Currency, Character, Binary, Date / Time, Boolean, Enumerated, Geometric, Network Address, BitString, Text Search, UUID, XML, JSON, Arrays, Composite, ranges, domain, object identifier, pg_lsn and nick.

PostgreSQL is available for macOS, Windows, Linux, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, AIX, HP-UX, Solaris, and UnixWare operating systems. It might work for most other Unix-like systems as well. Additionally, PostgreSQL is the default database for Apple’s macOS server.

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SQL in PostgreSQL

SQL (Structured Query Language) is designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve data. The use of SQL language in PostgreSQL makes it extensible and standards compliant. The RDBMS provides a large number of operators and functions for the built-in data types. It also supports other rich SQL language operations, making it an efficient and powerful choice.

Server administration

PostgreSQL server administration is capable of many necessary optimization tasks. Database administration covers essential activities, such as software installation, server installation and configuration, user and database management, and maintenance tasks.


There are two client interfaces included in the basic distribution of PostgreSQL, libpq and ECPG. RDBMS graphical user interface (GUI) tools allow open source database users to manage, manipulate, and visualize data. Popular GUI tools include pgAdmin, DBeaver, Navicat, DataGrip, and OmniDB.

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Uses of PostgreSQL

PostgreSQL is among the most stable database management systems and is commonly used as the primary data store or warehouse for website, geospatial, and analytics applications.

  • General Purpose OLTP: Online transaction processing systems (OLTP) capture and maintain transaction data in the database. OLTP databases are written, read, and updated frequently, with an emphasis on fast processing. Many startups and large enterprises use this RDBMS as the primary data store for products, Internet-wide applications, and solutions.
  • Federated hub: PostgreSQL can federate data and act as a hub within an infrastructure. It has foreign data envelopes for MySQL, Oracle, MongoDB, CouchDB, Redis, Informix, Neo4j and others. The community has largely contributed to the development of these extensions. They can be mapped to ODBC, JDBC, and LDAP interfaces.
  • Geospatial: Analyzing spatial or geographic data is an important aspect of data analysis that helps find locations, distances, and other geographic properties. PostgreSQL’s PostGIS extension allows geographic objects and can be used as geographic information systems (GIS) and geospatial data stores for location-based services. Notably, PostGIS offers many unique features rarely found in other spatial databases.
  • LAPP battery: The LAPP stack (Linux, Apache, PostgreSQL, PHP / Perl / Python) is an open source web platform that can be used to run dynamic websites and servers. As such, the RDBMS can run dynamic websites and applications as part of a powerful alternative to the LAMP stack.

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What are the advantages of using PostgreSQL?

PostgreSQL promotes itself as “the world’s most advanced open source relational database”. There are a lot of advantages to using it.

  • Open source license: It is available under an open source license which offers the freedom to use, implement and modify it as needed without any cost. No license cost eliminates the risk of over-deployment. This is the biggest advantage – that all types of users can freely experience advanced database systems and services.
  • Easily expandable: The functionality of this system is intended to help developers and administrators build applications, protect data integrity, and manage large and small data sets. As a result, it is designed to be easily extensible, and the extensions loaded into the database work just like the built-in features.
  • Reliability and integrity: Reliability is an important characteristic of any database system, and PostgreSQL does everything possible to ensure reliable operation of data. For example, to ensure data integrity, the RDBMS enables write-ahead (WAL) logging.
  • High availability and load balancing: It ensures high availability and load balancing through continuous planning, standby server operation, primary server preparation for standby servers, standby server setup, continuous replication, backup locations. replication, cascading replication, synchronous replication, and continuous archiving in standby.
  • Backup and restore: PostgreSQL databases can be configured to ensure that valuable data is backed up regularly. There are three fundamentally different approaches to backing up data: SQL dump, file system level backup, and continuous archiving.

“There was quite a bit of debate when we decided which tools would best serve as the foundation for FlightAware’s ambitious goals. For the underlying database, however, the choice to use PostgreSQL was pretty clear from the start, ”said David McNett, CIO at FlightAware.

This RDBMS builds on over 30 years of community development and has proven to be highly scalable. It is the backbone of many key technologies and applications in use every day. Developers and enterprises can build their applications reliably and high availability using PostgreSQL.

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